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Swahili historia pdf

Historia ya Kiswahili imeanza takriban miaka iliyopita kwenye pwani ya Afrika ya Mashariki. Kiswahili kilianza kama lugha ya miji na ma bandari ya biashara ya kimataifa kwenye pwani ya Afrika ya mashariki.

Tuna historia jinsi gani miji kama vile KilwaLamu na mingine kadhaa ilianzishwa na wafanyabiashara Waarabu au Wajemi waliooa wenyeji. Idadi ya wahamiaji kutoka Uarabuni haikuwa kubwa sana, hivyo lugha ya wenyeji ilitumika kila mahali ila tu maneno mengi yameingia kutoka Kiarabu. Utamaduni mpya ulijitokeza uliokuwa wa Kiafrika na wa Kiislamu ukajielewa kuwa sehemu ya dunia ya Uislamu. Hivyo Kiswahili kilizaliwa kuwa lugha ya Kibantu kilichopokea maneno mengi ya asili ya nje. Lugha iliandikwa kwa herufi za Kiarabu tangu karne ya 13 BK.

Kwa bahati mbaya leo hatuna tena maandiko ya kale sana, kutokana na hali ya hewa kwenye pwani isiyosaidia kutunza karatasi na kurasa zenyewe zinaweza kuoza kutokana na unyevu hewani pamoja na wadudu wengi walioko katika mazingira ya pwani. Lakini maandiko ya kale yanayopatikana kutoka karne ya 17 huonyesha ya kwamba tenzi na ma shairi vinafuata muundo uliotangulia maandiko yenyewe kwa karne kadhaa.

Sehemu kubwa ya maandiko ya kale ni tenzi yaani mashairi yenye aya ma elfu. Tenzi ndefu kabisa inahusu kifo cha Mtume Muhamad ikiwa na aya 45, Kiswahili kimepokelewa kirahisi na wenyeji kwa sababu walikosa lugha ya pamoja kati yao, lugha za Kibantu ziko karibu sana na athira ya Kiarabu ilikuwa kilekile kote pwani.

Haya yote yalisaidia kujenga umoja wa Kiswahili katika eneo kubwa la pwani ya Afrika ya Mashariki. Kiajemi pia kilichangia maneno mbalimbali, kama vile " bibi " na " cherehani ".

swahili historia pdf

Kufika kwa Wareno huko Afrika ya Mashariki kuanzia mwaka kulileta athira mpya ikiwa maneno kadhaa ya Kireno yameingia katika Kiswahili kama vile " bendera ", " gereza " na " meza ". Kuwepo kwa wafanyabiashara Wahindi katika miji mikubwa ya pwani kuliingiza pia maneno ya asili ya Kihindi katika lugha kama vile " lakhi ", " gunia " n.

Athira ya lugha za Kihindi iliongezeka kiasi baada ya Waingereza kutumia Wahindi wengi kujenga reli ya Uganda. Kiswahili kilitumika kama lugha ya biashara baina ya watu wa pwani na bara katika kanda ndefu sana kutoka Somalia hadi Msumbiji wa Kaskazini. Wafanyabiashara Waswahili waliendeleza biashara ya misafara hadi Kongo.

Kiswahili kiliendelea kuenea kwenye njia za misafara hii. Kila msafara ulihitaji watu ma mia hadi maelfu wa kubeba mizigo ya biashara kutoka pwani hadi pale msafara ulipolenga hata Ziwa Tanganyika. Watu hawa wote walisambaza matumizi ya Kiswahili katika sehemu za ndani. Lakini katika maeneo fulani biashara hii ilijenga pia kizuizi. Watu kama Waganda waliona Kiswahili ni lugha ya Waislamu tena lugha ya biashara ya watumwa ; hivyo hadi leo ni wagumu kukubali Kiswahili.

Karne ya 19 ilileta utawala wa kikoloni. Wakoloni walitangulia kufika katika mabandari ya pwani wakatumia mara nyingi ma karaniaskari na watumishi kutoka eneo la pwani wakijenga vituo vyao barani.Reblogged this on zswage. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email.

Notify me of new posts via email. Kwa kuwa msamiati mwingi uliopo katika lugha ya Kiswahili unatokana na lugha ya kiarabu ni dhahiri kuwa lugha hii inatokana na kiarabu. Mjadala kuhusu asili ya Kiswahili umejadiliwa na wataalam mbalimbali na wametumia vigezo mbalimbali kuthibitisha madai yao.

Wapo wanaodai kuwa Kiswahili ni kiarabu, wanaoshadidia dai hili, kigezo kimojawapo wanchokitumia ni kigezo cha msamiati, kwamba lugha ya Kiswahili ina msamiati mwingi wa kiarabu na kwa hiyo kwakuwa Kiswahili kina msamiati mwingi wa kiarabu basi pia Kiswahili ni kiarabu, kwa kweli dai hili halina mashiko. Dhana hizo ni kama zifuatazo:. Fasili hii ni nzuri na inajitosheleza kwa maana kwamba jambo au kitu kinaweza kutokea kibahati kama ilivyo katika lugha au linaweza kuanzishwa.

Msamiati kwa mujibu wa TUKI ni jumla ya maneno katika lugha. Fasili hii iko wazi kwamba jumla ya maneno yote katika lugha ndio huunda msamiati wa lugha husika. Wataalam wanaodai kuwa Kiswahili ni kiarabu kwa kutumia kigezo cha msamiati, hoja zao ni kama zifuatazo:. Khalid anaendelea kusema kuwa Kiswahili kina msamiati mwingi wenye asili ya kiarabu. Hapa ni baadhi ya mifano ya msamiati wa Kiswahili wenye asili ya kiarabu kama alivyobainisha Khalid:. Lodh naye anasema kiasi kikubwa cha nomino za Kiswahili zimetokana na mizizi ya maneno ya kiarabu.

Mifano ya maneno hayo ni kama yafuatayo:. Hata hivyo kigezo hiki cha msamiati kina udhaifu; Massamba ameonesha udhaifu wa kigezo hiki kuwa ni pamoja na kwamba:. Kigezo cha msamiati peke yake hakijitoshelezi kuelezea kuwa Kiswahili ni kiarabu, walipaswa waangalie vigezo vingine kama vile kigezo cha kihistoria kwa kuchunguza masimulizi mbalimbali ya kale na kigezo cha kiisimu; katika kigezo hiki walipaswa kuchunguza fonolojia, mofolojiana sintaksia ya Kiswahili kwa kulinganisha na kiarabu na ndipo wangepata hitimisho sahihi la madai yao.

Vilevile kigezo hiki cha msamiati hakina mashiko kwa sababu lugha ina tabia ya kuathiriana, lugha huathiriana na lugha nyingine endapo kutakuwa na mwingiliano baina ya wanajamii lugha hizo. Kwa mfano Kiswahili kimetokea kuathiriana na kiarabu kutokana na uhusiano uliokuwepo hapo zamani katika biashara kati ya waarabu na watu wa upwa wa Afrika Mashariki na hii ikapelekea msamiatia wa kiarabu kuingia katika lugha ya Kiswahili, hivyo kwa hoja hii hatuwezi kusema Kiswahili ni kiarabu kwa sababu msamiati wa kiarabu unaonekana katika lugha ya Kiswahili.The Swahili language, is basically of Bantu African origin.

It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. As regards the formation of the Swahili culture and language, some scholars attribute these phenomena to the intercourse of African and Asiatic people on the coast of East Africa. The word "Swahili" was used by early Arab visitors to the coast and it means "the coast". Ultimately it came to be applied to the people and the language.

Regarding the history of the Swahili language, the older view linked to the colonial time asserts that the Swahili language originates from Arabs and Persians who moved to the East African coast.

Given the fact that only the vocabulary can be associated with these groups but the syntax or grammar of the language is Bantu, this argument has been almost forgotten. It is well known that any language that has to grow and expand its territories ought to absorb some vocabulary from other languages in its way.

A suggestion has been made that Swahili is an old language. The earliest known document recounting the past situation on the East African coast written in the 2nd century AD in Greek language by anonymous author at Alexandria in Egypt and it is called the Periplus of Erythrean Sea says that merchants visiting the East African coast at that time from Southern Arabia, used to speak with the natives in their local language and they intermarried with them.

Those that suggest that Swahili is an old language point to this early source for the possible antiquity of the Swahili language. Words from Other Languages. It is an undeniable truth that Arab and Persian cultures had the greatest influence on the Swahili culture and the Swahili language. To demonstrate the contribution of each culture into the Swahili language, take an example of the numbers as they are spoken in Swahili.

The Arabic word "tisa" actually replaced the Bantu word "kenda" for "nine". In some cases the word "kenda" is still used. The Swahili language also absorbed words from the Portuguese who controlled the Swahili coastal towns c.

Some of the words that the Swahili language absorbed from the Portuguese include "leso" handkerchief"meza" table"gereza" prison"pesa" 'peso', moneyetc.

Swahili bull-fighting, still popular on the Pemba island, is also a Portuguese legacy from that period. The Swahili language also borrowed some words from languages of the later colonial powers on the East African coast - English British and German.

Swahilized English words include "baiskeli" bicycle"basi" bus"penseli" pencil"mashine" machine"koti" coatetc. The Swahilized German words include "shule" for school and "hela" for a German coin. Spread into the Hinterland.

swahili historia pdf

For centuries, Swahili remained as the language for the people of the East African coast. Long-time interactions with other people bordering the Indian Ocean spread the Swahili language to distant places such as on the islands of Comoro and Madagascar and even far beyond to South Africa, Oman and United Arab Emirates.

Trade and migration from the Swahili coast during the nineteenth-century helped spread the language to the interior of particularly Tanzania. Christian missionaries learnt Swahili as the language of communication to spread the Gospel in Eastern Africa.

So, the missionaries also helped to spread the language. As a matter of fact the first Swahili-English dictionary was prepared by a missionary. During the colonial time, Swahili was used for communication with the local inhabitants.Post a Comment. Home About Contact.

Historia ya Kiswahili

Historia ya riwaya ulimwenguni haina muda mrefu sana hasa inapolinganishwa na historia ya tanzu nyingine za fasihi kama vile ushairi, tamthiliya, na fasihi simulizi. Riwaya ya Kirusi nayo ilijitokeza zaidi wakati huo huo. Historia ya riwaya ya Kiswahili nayo haikupishana sana na hali hiyo ya kutanguliwa na tanzu nyingine za fasihi, ingawa kwa hakika imejitokeza mapema zaidi kabla ya tamthiliya za Kiswahili. Tofauti kubwa kati ya riwaya ya Kiswahili na riwaya za Ulaya ni kwamba yenyewe imeanza kujitokeza mwishoni mwa karne ya kumi na tisa.

Zaidi ya hilo, riwaya ya Kiswahili imekuwa na maendeleo tofauti kabisa hasa kwa vile imeanza kukua kutokana na hadithi zilizotokana na fasihi simulizi. Pamoja na kutanguliwa na tanzu nyingine kama vile ushairi, ambao historia yake ni ndefu sana, historia ya riwaya, kwa haraka mno imepitia hatua tofauti nakukua kiasi ambacho hivi sasa umaarufu wake umezidi ule wa tanzu nyingine kwa klwango kikubwa sana. Ikiangaliwa katika wakati wake wa sasa, riwaya ya Kiswahili inaonckana kuwa imetajirika sana upandc wa dhamira, muundo, ujenzi wa wahusika na hata kwa idadi.

Ni utanzu ambao kwa upana na undani zaidi umeweza kuzingatia nyanja tofauti za maisha kama vile uchumi, siasa, utawala na maisha ya jamii kwa jumla. Riwaya ya Kiswahili imeweza kuvuka mipaka ya nchi na hata kwenda nje ya Afrika Mashariki. Sababu za maendeleo kama hayo zitajitokeza wakati wa kujadili vipindi tofauti vya historia ya riwaya ya Kiswahili. Mojawapo ya sababu kubwa ambayo inaweza kutajwa hapa ni ongczeko la watu wanaoweza kusoma na kuandika.

Historia ya riwaya ya Kiswahili imeangaliwa katika sura tofaati na wataalamu na watafiti mbalimbali. Wapo wale ambao wameiangalia pamoja na historia ya fasihi ya Kiswahili kama vile Rollinsna wapo ambao wamegusia uandishi wa hadithi za Kiswahili kama vile Balisidya NRollinsOhlySenkorona wengine. Kuhusu historia ya riwaya wapo wataalamu tofauti ambao wameiangalia historia hiyo katika sura tofauti.

Baadhi wanaiangalia historia hiyo kuanzia mwishoni mwa karne ya kumi na tisa. Wataalamu hawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na Rajmund Ohly wanaiangalia historia ya riwaya ya Kiswahili kuanzia wakati wa Edward Steere, ambaye mwaka alikusanya simulizi za wenyeji wa Zanzibar na kuzihariri. Hadithi hizi zilikusanywa na kuandikwa kwa lugha ya Kiingereza.

Wataalamu kama hawa wanaiangalia historia ya riwaya kuanzia kwenye chanzo chake na vilevile kuanzia kwenye hatua za mwanzo katika maendeleo yake. Senkoro anadai kuwa:.

A Brief History of the Swahili Language

Dai hili linaweza kupambana na dai la Kezilahabi kuwa waandishi wa Kiswahili sio lazima wawe Waswahili na pia suala la Mswahili ni nani. Dai hilo kuhusu Mbotela limepingwa na Shariff ambaye haamini kuwa kazi hiyo imeandikwa hasa na Mbotela na kuwa mawazo mengi hapo sio ya Mswahili. Shariff anasema:. Wakati mawazo ya Senkoro yanaweza kuwa yamekitwa kwenye ufafanuzi wake wa riwaya ya Kiswahili, uchunguzi wa Shariffunaonyesha kuwa kufuatana na vigezo tunavyoviona kwa Senkoro riwaya ya Mbotela inaweza isistahili sifa hiyo ya kuwa riwaya ya Kiswahili.

Hata hivyo Shariff hakukiri waziwazi kwamba hiyo si riwaya ya Kiswahili. Ufafanuzi wetu wa baadaye kuhusu riwaya ya Kiswahili utaweza kutoa mwanga zaidi kuhusu suala hili. Ni muhimu kufafanua riwaya ya Kiswahili ni ipi na ni nini. Pamoja na wataalamu hao waliotajwa wa makundi hayo mawili, wapo wataalamu wengine ambao wanadai kuwa histoha ya Kiswahili imefunguliwa mlango na Shaaban Robert.

Hawa ni akina Elena Bertoncini na Shegov Pamoja nao wachunguzi kama akina Rollins wanachangia zaidi. Hawa wameichukulia riwaya ya Kiswahili katika hatua yake ya juu kimaendeleo na kuacha pengo kubwa ambalo ndilo hasa lililoweka msingi wa kukua kwa riwaya ya Kiswahili. Na wapo wataalamu ambao wameiangalia riwaya ya Kiswahili na kuilinganisha na liwaya zmgine za Ulaya kama vile Ohly anavyoona kuwa riwaya ya Kiswahili ilianzia mwaka wakati Kezilahabi alipoandika Kichwamaji.To browse Academia.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Method Samwel. Kabiero J. Seleman Baruapepe: aminamikina yahoo. Hairuhusiwi kuiga, kunakili, kutafsiri, kupiga chapa au kukitoa kitabu hiki kwa jinsi yoyote ile bila idhini ya mchapishaji na Method Samwel. Hata hivyo, inaruhusiwa kuchukua vipande vifupi vya kitabu hiki kwa minajili ya kufanya marejeo na nukuu au kufanya mapitio. Kwanza tuanze kwa kumshukuru Mungu, ambaye, kwa mtazamo wetu, ndiye huwapa watu afya njema na mawazo ya nini cha kufanya na nini cha kutofanya.

Bila shaka Manani ndiye aliyetupa wazo la kuandika kitabu hiki na kututia nguvu kulitimiza wazo hilo japo haikuwa kazi rahisi kutimiza lengo letu kutokana na ugumu wa shughuli nzima ya uchapaji nchini Tanzania. Pia tunawashukuru wazazi na walezi wetu ambao walitulea na kutusomesha hata tukapata maarifa haya ambayo leo tunayaweka kitabuni kama kumbukumbu kwa vizazi vijavyo.

Zaidi ya hao, wapo ambao tumetumia maandiko yao katika kujielimisha juu ya ushairi wa Kiswahili, wale ambao walihariri kazi hii katika ngazi mbalimbali na pia wale waliotoa fedha kuhakikisha kitabu hiki kinachapishwa na kuwa na muonekano ulionacho. Hivyo tunawashukuru wanazuoni wote ambao maandiko yao yamenukuliwa katika kitabu hiki. Kwa hakika maandiko yenu ndiyo yametoa dira ya andiko hili. Mlale salama peponi na Mola awape heri.

swahili historia pdf

Wengine tunaowashukuru hapa ni Prof. Hawa ndiyo walitulea tukiwa tunajifunza taaluma ya Kiswahili, ikiwa ni pamoja na ushairi wake. Yeye ndiye aliyetoa fedha za kugharamia hatua kwa hatua uandazi wa kitabu hiki tangu uandishi na upangaji wa muswada, uhariri na uchapishaji kwa ujumla.

Tunakushukuru sana kwa mapenzi yako katika lugha hii. Ni imani yetu kwamba tumekata kiu yako ya kuhakikisha ujuzi tulionao katika taaluma hii ya ushairi unawafikia watu wengi. Mwisho kabisa tuwashukuru wana familia wetu ambao kwa nyakati tofauti walitutia moyo na kutuvumilia tulipotingwa na kazi hii ya uandishi.

Andiko hili liwapoze machungu na mjisikie kuhusika kipekee katika kuendeleza lugha hii adhimu ya Kiswahili. Tunapenda kusisitiza kwamba tuliowashukuru hapa hawahusiki na udhaifu wowote utakaoonekana kitabuni.

Udhaifu huo, kama utaonekana, ni wetu wenyewe. Kinaanza kwa masuala ya kidhana, kinadharia, historia na maendeleo ya ushairi wa Kiswahili, mbinu za ufundishaji wa ushairi na Kiswahili kwa ujumla na kisha kumalizia kwa Diwani ya MEA. Katika sehemu ya kwanza tumechambua kwa kina dhana ya ushairi, nadharia mbalimbali za chimbuko la ushairi, historia na maendeleo ya ushairi wa Kiswahili na jinsi ya kuufundisha ushairi wa Kiswahili pamoja na lugha yenyewe kwa ujumla.

Tuseme wazi hapa kwamba sehemu hiyo ilikuwa na changamoto kubwa kwani masuala kama hayo katika taaluma za sayansi ya Jamii, kama anavyobainisha Madumullahayana maelezo ya namna moja. Kuna maelezo mengi yanayokinzana kuhusu dhana, nadharia na historia na maendeleo ya Kiswahili. Kitabu hiki kimechunguza maelezo ya wanazuoni waliotangulia na kubainisha udhaifu wa maelezo hayo.

Udhaifu huo ndiyo uliweka misingi ya maelezo yetu katika kitabu hiki tukijaribu kuondoa udhaifu husika. Zaidi ya sehemu ya kwanza, kitabu hiki kina sehemu ya pili ambayo imepewa jina Diwani ya MEA. Katika sehemu ya kwanza tuliyoieleza awali ambayo inaitwa Nadharia, Maendeleo na Mwongozo kwa Walimu wa Kiswahili, tumetoa tu ufafanuzi wa dhana, nadharia, historia na mbinu mbalimbali zinazoweza kutumika katika utunzi na uchambuzi wa mashairi.

Zaidi ya kuwa kifupi cha majina ya waandishi, Diwani ya MEA inapanda mbegu za mapinduzi katika mioyo ya kila msomaji ili ziweze kumea. Katika diwani hiyo kuna mashairi mazito na mazuri ambayo yanakusudia kuielimisha na kuiburudisha jamii.

Mashairi hayo yanaakisi masuala mbalimbali ya kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii. Aidha, mashairi hayo yametumia miundo tofauti ikiwa ni mchanganyiko wa muundo wa kimapokeo na wa kisasa.

Kwa kufanya hivyo, sisi waandishi, tunajitambulisha kama wanausasa. Diwani ya MEA imekusudia kupanda mawazo katika mioyo na vichwa vya wasomaji wake ili yaweze kumea na hatimaye kuzaa matunda na matunda hayo yakapate kudumu ili kwamba kila lifanyikalo likumbukwe kwamba linapandwa na litamea.

Likishamea litahitaji mvunaji makini na mwenye utayari ili ayavune na kuyapeleka sokoni kwa mauzo.Swahilialso known as Kiswahili translation: language of the Swahili peopleis a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. The exact number of Swahili speakers, be it native or second-language speakers, is unknown and a matter of debate.

Shikomorthe official language in Comoros and also spoken in Mayotte Shimaoreis related to Swahili. A significant fraction of Swahili vocabulary derives from Arabic[12] in part conveyed by Arabic-speaking Muslim inhabitants. Swahili is a Bantu language of the Sabaki branch. Local folk-theories of the language have often considered Swahili to be a mixed language because of its many loanwords from Arabic and Persianand the fact that the Swahili language emerged as a result of trade between the east African coastal Bantu-speaking tribes and traders from Arabia, Persia, Asia south and southeast as well as Europe Portugal.

However, historical linguists do not consider the Arabic influence on Swahili to be significant enough to classify it as a mixed language, since Arabic influence is limited to lexical items, most of which have only been borrowed afterwhile the grammatical and syntactic structure of the language is typically Bantu.

The Swahili language dates its origin to the Bantu people of the coast of East Africa. The Swahili language is a daughter language of the Pokomo language which is also known as Kingozi.

Most of the Bantu Swahili vocabulary is derived primarily from the Pokomo, Taita and Mijikenda languages and secondarily from other East African Bantu languages. It was originally written in Arabic script. The earliest known documents written in Swahili are letters written in Kilwa in in the Arabic script that were sent to the Portuguese of Mozambique and their local allies.

The original letters are preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa, India. Various colonial powers that ruled on the coast of East Africa played a role in the growth and spread of Swahili.

With the arrival of the Arabs in East Africa, they used Swahili as a language of trade as well as teaching Islam to the local Bantu peoples. This resulted in Swahili first being written in the Arabic alphabet.

The later contact with the Portuguese resulted in the increase of vocabulary of the Swahili language. The language was formalised in an institutional level when the Germans took over after the Berlin conference. With the Germans controlling the major Swahili speaking region in East Africa, they changed the alphabet system from Arabic to Latin.

After the first World war, Britain took over East Africa and found that Swahili was rooted in most areas East Africa and wasn't only spoken at the coastal regions, they decided to formalise it as language to be used across the East African region although in British East Africa of Kenya and Uganda most areas used English and their native language while Swahili was mostly restricted to the coast. In Junean inter territorial conference attended by representatives of KenyaTanganyikaUgandaand Zanzibar took place in Mombasa.

The Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard Swahili for those areas, [21] and the standard orthography for Swahili was adopted.

Swahili has become a second language spoken by tens of millions in three African Great Lakes countries KenyaUgandaand the DRC where it is an official or national language while being the first language to many people in Tanzania especially along the coastal regions of Tanga, Pwani, Dar es salaam, Mtwara and Lindi.

Learn Swahili - Swahili in Three Minutes - How to Introduce Yourself in Swahili

In the inner regions of Tanzania, Swahili is spoken with an accent influenced by local languages and dialects, and as a first language for most people born in the cities, whilst being spoken as a second language in rural areas.

The widespread use of Swahili as a nation language in Tanzania came after Tanganyika got her independence in and the government decided that it would be used as a language to unify the new nation. That saw the use of Swahili in all levels of government, trade, art as well as schools in which primary school children are taught in Swahili, before switching to English in Secondary schools although Swahili is still taught as an independent subject.

Inwith the 8—4—4 system of education, Swahili was made a compulsory subject in all Kenyan schools. BAKITA was formed as an organisation dedicated to the development and advocacy of Swahili as a means of national integration in Tanzania. Key activities mandated for the organization include creating a healthy atmosphere for the development of Swahili, encouraging use of the language in government and business functions, coordinating activities of other organizations involved with Swahili, standardizing the language.

Karibu (Welcome)

Although other bodies and agencies can propose new vocabularies, BAKITA is the only organisation in the world that can approve its usage in the Swahili language. Swahili is among the first languages in Africa for which language technology applications have been developed. Arvi Hurskainen is one of the early developers.

The applications include a spelling checker[28] part-of-speech tagging[29] a language learning software[29] an analysed Swahili text corpus of 25 million words, [30] an electronic dictionary[29] and machine translation [29] between Swahili and English. The development of language technology also strengthens the position of Swahili as a modern medium of communication. Swahili played a major role in spreading both Christianity and Islam in East Africa. With the arrival of Arabs in East Africa they brought Islam and to which they set up Madrasas and used Swahili to teach Islam to the natives.A postulated millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto-Bantu language group.

Attempts to trace the exact route of the migrations, to correlate it with archaeological evidence and genetic evidence, have not been conclusive. The Bantu traveled in two waves, and it is likely that the migration of the Bantu-speaking people from their core region in West Africa began around BCE.

His family ruled the Sultanate untilwhen it was replaced by the Arab family of Abu Moaheb. The latter was overthrown by a Portuguese invasion in They speak Swahili as their native language, which belongs to the Niger-Congo family. Swahili culture is the product of the history of the coastal part of the African Great Lakes region. As with the Swahili language, Swahili culture has a Bantu core and has also borrowed from foreign influences.

The Swahili people are mainly united under the mother tongue of Kiswahili, a Bantu language. British archaeologists assumed during the colonial period that Arab or Persian colonizers brought stone architecture and urban civilization to the Swahili Coast. Today we know that it was local populations that developed the Swahili coast.

Swahili architecture exhibits a range of influences and innovations, and diverse forms and histories interlock and overlap to create densely layered structures that cannot be broken down into distinct stylistic parts.

Around the 8th century, the Swahili people began trading with the Arab, Persian, Indian, Chinese, and Southeast Asian peoples—a process known as the Indian Ocean trade. As a consequence of long-distance trading routes crossing the Indian Ocean, the Swahili were influenced by Arabic, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cultures.

During the 10th century, several city-states flourished along the Swahili Coast and adjacent islands, including Kilwa, Malindi, Gedi, Pate, Comoros, and Zanzibar.

These early Swahili city-states were Muslim, cosmopolitan, and politically independent of one another. They were also involved in the slave trade.

These city-states began to decline towards the 16th century, mainly as a consequence of the Portuguese advent. Eventually, Swahili trading centers went out of business, and commerce between Africa and Asia on the Indian Ocean collapsed. Bythe sultanate was already fragmented into smaller states, many of which became protectorates of the Sultanate of Oman. Despite its origin as a Persian colony, extensive inter-marriage and conversion of local Bantu inhabitants and later Arab immigration turned the Kilwa Sultanate into a diverse state not ethnically differentiable from the mainland.

It is the mixture of Perso-Arab and Bantu cultures in Kilwa that is credited for creating Swahili as a distinctive East African culture and language. Nonetheless, the Muslims of Kilwa whatever their ethnicity would often refer to themselves generally as Shirazi or Arabsand to the unconverted Bantu peoples of the mainland as Zanj or Khaffirs infidels.

The Kilwa Sultanate was almost wholly dependent on external commerce. Effectively, it was a confederation of urban settlements, and there was little or no agriculture carried on in within the boundaries of the sultanate. Grains principally millet and ricemeats cattle and poultryand other supplies necessary to feed the large city populations had to be purchased from the Bantu peoples of the interior. Kilwan traders from the coast encouraged the development of market towns in the Bantu-dominated highlands of what are now Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe.

The Kilwan mode of living was as middlemen traders, importing manufactured goods cloth, etc. The exception was the coconut palm tree. The Swahili do not often use designs with images of living beings due to their Muslim heritage.

Instead, Swahili designs are primarily geometric. The most typical musical genre of Swahili culture is taarab or tarabusung in the Swahili language.

Its melodies and orchestration have Arab and Indian influences, although Western instruments, such as guitars, are sometimes used. Exotic ornament and design elements also connected the architecture of the Swahili coast to other Islamic port cities. In fact, many of the classic mansions and palaces of the Swahili Coast belonged to wealthy merchants and landowners, who played a key role in the mercantile economy of the region.

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